inapoi la SURSE Michael Laitman – link
- Bold and in quotes: Original text of Baal HaSulam
- Regular: Commentaries of Rav Laitman
- lowercase italics: emphasized words
- Capitalized italics: transliteration from Hebrew
This talk is the first in a series of lectures about the wisdom of Kabbalah. So where should we start? Let us begin with man’s state.
Over the course of thousands of years of his development, certain questions ripen in man. These are questions about the meaning of life. As we all know, even people many centuries ago were preoccupied with these questions in the same way this occurs to each one of us today.
The question about the meaning of life is the most difficult question that comes to a person in childhood. We can probably remember ourselves at the age of six, eight, ten or twelve, when we first pondered the question: “Why do we live?” This question does not awaken in a person by mere coincidence. After all, this question is a question about one’s existence, and it is originally inherent to a person.
If a person received a correct form of upbringing—one within a society that realizes for what sake we live, how to live, what goal we are required to achieve, whether there is a goal to our life at all, and whether humanity’s existence is goal-oriented—then that person would receive this answer in his youth, and would possibly grow up in an altogether different way compared to what we see in our world.
In any case, having failed to acquire the answer, we become ashamed to even ask this question. We observe adults and the way they live, and we continue dragging our lives by with difficulty. We forget about this question by suppressing it, since we do not find the answer.
Today, all of humanity is asking this important question, the question that is becoming expressed more intensely through problems with ecology, drugs, crises in the family, in upbringing—in short, everywhere. In the same way as before, humanity does not know the answer and it prefers to forget about it. Advertisements, television, radio, and all sorts of things exist in order for us to avoid thinking about this question. Even prominent activists, whose jobs oblige them to think about humanity’s future, and about the threat of extinction present in the world, are unable to plan or think about anything. After all, they do not know how to fix things, they do not know the secret of life, nor are they aware of the sake for which we live.
This seemingly naïve question: “For what sake do we live?” is tacitly present in all of man’s actions, and it constantly remains throughout our life, demanding an answer. We can say that everything man accomplishes in his life, and everything he attempts to do, is either to engage in this question, to reveal it and possibly find an answer to it, or to silence it, to avoid thinking about it and to separate himself from it, as if it does not exist.
Whether we do so in a positive or negative form, we all express our relationship to the question—“For what sake do we live?” Kabbalists formulate this question somewhat differently: “What is the meaning of our life?” Some people are able to run away from it, and others are not. In this case, who is luckier? It depends upon the society and on the upbringing to which a person accordingly acts. Basically, the aspiration and relationship toward this question is determined by the inner state of a person’s soul, and the presence or absence of (what Kabbalah calls) a “point in the heart” (Nekuda she ba Lev) within a person’s soul.
Correspondingly, people are subdivided into those who are unable to escape this question, and those who find a hideout from it in various forms of activities. The relationship to the question about the meaning of life subdivides people into the following categories (which depend on where a person finds this meaning): in money, in bodily pleasures, in status, power, science or education. However, in any case, they are all built relative to the same question: “What is the meaning of my life?”
As was stated earlier, one way or another, everyone is able to suppress this question in childhood. However, after some time passes, it suddenly returns, again and again. Sometimes it does so during especially difficult times in life. We then ask: “Why do we suffer?” This way, through suffering, we once again come to the same question about the meaning of life.
A small child does not suffer. This question awakens in a child naturally. An adult who carries the burden of a family, children, work, debts, pressure from society, advertisements, responsibilities toward society (or being the same as everyone else), this person tries to avoid delving into his questions. Society obligates him to occupy a certain position; in the role of a father of a family, a worker, a friend, and a citizen… A person does not have any time left for this question.
It is we ourselves who have organized our life in such a way, in order to “run away” from this question. However, when difficult moments come, a person nevertheless asks: “Why do I suffer?” This is the same question as “For what sake do I live?” except that a person asks it from a state when he feels bad. In this case as well, a person either “runs away” from this question, or he tries to resort to the use of various methodologies that provide tranquility, perhaps he resorts to doctors… It is known that the most widespread disease in the world today is depression.
Youth today have been overtaken by a wave of drugs. Why does one need to use drugs at this age and to cut oneself off from life? After all, one’s entire life is ahead of him: adventures, earthly love… The whole world is spread before him, and it has prepared so many activities for him, such as games, opportunities, and fortunate circumstances. But no!
There are millions of people willing to cut themselves off from life, and they are not doing this because of the material crisis. Swiss are second in the world with regard to suicides. Not everyone is successful at ridding himself of life: only one out of four attempts are successful. Otherwise they would be the first in the world. We cannot say that Switzerland is one of the nations that have failed to achieve sufficient development, which does not allow man to perfect himself, and does not give him chances to realize himself. Nevertheless, drugs and suicides are occurring in the youthful society.
That is, we are encountering a phenomenon when a person wants to exit life even before he has revealed it for himself. Time and time again, this supports the fact that this very question—“For what sake do we live?”—that awakens in us approximately at the age of six, must be solved beginning with this age and older. Otherwise, the young generation will wallow in drugs and suicides.
It is not by coincidence that, upon answering the question: “At what age should a person begin to study Kabbalah?” Rav Kook said: “He should begin to study it when he wants to.” Agra (the Gaon from Vilna) said: “Beginning at six years of age.” After all, he himself was already a sage at nine years of age with regard to the concealed and revealed parts of the Torah. At eleven years of age, he began to write books about Kabbalah. Undoubtedly, these were special people. However, in any case, this means that a child is capable of asking these questions and finding the answer to the main question of his life.
As we observe what is taking place in the world, we discover that over the course of many centuries, human society develops and it passes from its small desires to greater ones. Thousands of years ago people did not feel a yearning for the same things as people yearn for in our day; they were satisfied by insignificant things. However, today they want more and more, until they finally reach the state when they no longer desire anything and they want to turn themselves off, since they reveal to themselves that this development has not given them anything.
Everyone knows about the crisis in the family and the crisis in upbringing. After all, we have no idea how to raise the growing, new generation. If we do not have the answer to the question—“For what sake do we live?”—how, then, are we able to raise them (or educate them)?
Hundreds of years ago, even fifty to one hundred years ago, we raised children by teaching them how to settle down in this life. In essence, we taught them how to “run away” from the question about the meaning of life. This constituted our entire upbringing.
(In general, our entire culture and everything we do in life depend on our relationship toward this question.)
Today we are no longer able to do this. Why? After all, we do not have any answer for them, and so this crisis in upbringing is taking place. If the question: “Why do I live?” emerges in them, we then do not have for it a direct answer. So what do schools teach? Temporary programs replace one another annually. Everyone is unhappy, yet the problems are not being solved.
There is a crisis in the family: the amount of divorces constantly increases. Once upon a time a person took care of his family, and this tradition was passed on from father to son and from mother to daughter. A son knew that if his father is a blacksmith then he would also be a blacksmith. The family trade was passed down from father to son and from generation to generation. The preservation of familial ties was the basis for existence. We know about this from history, and in ancient novels we read about how the genealogical family tree was composed.
Today however, mutual understanding is absent not only within the family circle, but also between husband and wife. Recently we are observing a phenomenon when people are beginning to not even care about their children. People think: “We are getting by somehow, and they will also settle down somehow. The whole world is open—let them try to achieve everything on their own.”
And really, children are separating from their parents at an increasingly younger age, and both sides feel comfortable about this, as if one side has no obligation toward the other.
Correspondingly, society is building systems of support for the elderly. The whole world belongs to young people, who receive freedom from an early age.
All of these phenomena point to two aspects. The “ego,” or a person’s desire to receive, continues to increase. However, by itself it does not find the answer: For what and why does it develop?
We observe how the crisis spreads to all of man’s activities in this world. Let us say that a hundred years ago workers of culture were greatly honored. Good musicians and artists were very well respected. Kings and heads of governments gave them honors and organized receptions in their name. But today, who has any care for them? It is like this because our desire to receive, or to feel pleasure by fulfilling ourselves, is much stronger than a beautiful picture and beautiful music; our desire is much more aggressive than whatever fulfillment these things can provide. We no longer respect them to the same degree as before. (I am speaking about humanity in general.)
In addition, there are also people who do just the opposite. They say that in opposition to our “ego” that is destroying everything (such as our families and children, by bringing them to drugs and that brings nations to mass annihilation), we must concern ourselves with relaxing. They say that we should use methodologies that suppress our egoistic desire, and calm ourselves though various means, like transcendental meditation or regular meditation. There are people who are very successful at doing this.
Fashion is transient. Possibly, the industry of the Indian culture will soon come to be replaced by that of the Chinese. Nevertheless, in any case, man searches for peace. However, when there is no way out, and it is impossible to solve the question—“for what sake do I live?”—then I somehow relax myself, but I do this without suffering. If my small desire nevertheless demands an answer to this question—“for what sake do I live?”—then I will find a way to live more modestly, or I will somehow come to the state where I feel comfortable.
Nothing can be done about this; I will belittle myself this way and I will be as a child or toddler. Thank God, I have health and something else, and I will be satisfied with this.
Once upon a time, over the course of thousands of years, we thought that man is good and that he is the crown of nature or the pinnacle of all evolution. Man has a mind and is capable of changing nature. He is the justification of everything that exists since he takes that which has been given to him, works with it and uses it in the correct form. He reveals the laws of nature and uses them to develop society. Throughout centuries, there has existed an assuredness that humanity will achieve prosperity and will learn how to correctly use its desires, despite all their negative essence.
Science and culture, education and medicine, and all man’s activity on Earth; all of this should have brought man to the state when he would have been able to derive pleasure from their fruits. For thousands of years humanity has exerted its efforts into this progress, and suddenly it discovers that the fruit is rotten, bitter and opposite. Progress, which ultimately aims for a result of pleasure and fulfillment, instead brings death, abyss and darkness.
We are destroying nature. Such ecological catastrophes are occurring whereby we do not know what will happen in a month. We are not talking about hurricanes and tsunamis, but about the annihilation of humanity by way of natural cataclysms. Whether it is due to cooling or heating—it is uncertain exactly how—but the scientists’ are foretelling horrible and frightening natural events in the coming future. The problem is not that this may happen sometime in the distant future. After all, it is unquestionable that man’s existence on Earth will somehow come to an end, since everything evolves. However, we are talking about a few short years or even months; no one knows what will happen and when.
The changes that the Gulf Stream Current is undergoing may lead to the freezing of all of Europe, and the volcanic eruptions expected to take place mainly within the world ocean can lead to consequences much more destructive than if they occur somewhere in Africa or the Himalayas, since what happens in the ocean will threaten of alteration of the earth’s core.
In short, we are in states that have never before been equaled. It is becoming more and more clear that the whole world is a small village, and that we influence one another, not only by the fact that we have arrived at a universal economy or global terror; moreover, we literally depend on each other in all our production, in the distribution of activities, in the acquisition of oil, energy, and so on.
This connection is so crucially all-encompassing, that any change in any point in the world may immediately cause a great shock throughout the whole world. How can we protect ourselves from all these small shocks, in order to avoid causing a universal reaction? This is unclear to us. In addition, we do not know what exerts an influence on what, and according to what formula everyone in the world is connected with each other. However, the fact that we are all connected is obvious.
We have also come to the revelation—and not from the point of view of nature, when one thing is a part of another—that if a forest is being burned somewhere, then other natural cataclysms suddenly take place in another place, such as hurricanes, cooling or heating. We did not experience this previously, although this existed before to some degree as well. However, now that we have tied all humanity into one knot by way of economic development, oil and consumer goods, every little thing influences everyone. The economic downfall of one government is sufficient for everyone to feel a difference, since everyone depends on the delivery provided by each country.
We are becoming a single living organism that lives and envelops the entire planet. This picture becomes more obvious and harsh every day, and this organism depends on all its parts.
What about world terror? People say that this is not merely a passing thing that can be somehow kept in check or that can at least be decreased to some degree. In essence, this phenomenon is man’s mutiny regarding the same question: “For what sake do we live?” People who do not know the answer place some goals before themselves (for now), and they are internally assured that the achievement of these goals will answer the question about the meaning of their life.
Therefore they are willing to kill themselves, to live in difficult conditions and to devote their whole lives to achieving some goal, because they have placed this goal as the answer to the question: “For what sake do I live.” However, it is clear that this answer is not a way out, and if they found the correct answer, then undoubtedly the wave of terror will decrease. Otherwise it will not calm down.
We see that during all stages of man’s development there have been people who asked the question about the meaning of existence, such as ancient philosophers and various thinkers. In essence, religions also emerged in order to somehow answer this question. All founders of religions asked the question—“For what sake do we live?”—and every religion attempts to answer this. However, the degree to which this also fails is clear.
Regardless of whatever level of development we achieve, and despite our accessories and modern culture, we nevertheless want to present ourselves as belonging to a certain religion, or as people who believe in an Upper Power. However, this relates more to culture than to religion. This is like a club and not more than that. After all, if man felt that he could receive the answer with the help of religion, then he would behave differently and he would organize his life in a different way.
However, based on the fact that his behavior is cruel—crisis in the family, drugs, crisis in upbringing (and this is the result of what is happening in religion)—we make the conclusion that religions today are unable to influence man. Man is no longer religious; religion is merely a part of humanity’s culture.
And the last factor that is added to all these disappointments in man’s activity on Earth over the course of thousands of years, is the crisis in science. Humanity has always believed in science. This was a field that did not relate to man: we reveal the world, and the more we will reveal, the more we will be able to use it correctly in order to benefit ourselves.
In the past, science belonged only to special individuals and closed societies. All its fundamental discoveries, such as the way to produce a mirror, gunpowder or paper, were kept secret. The laws of mathematics and medicine were very important for humanity, but they were protected for thousands of years. In addition, science and religion were always in competition, and were never able to get along with each other. We always thought that we will come to goodness, specifically with the help of science.
However, as Baal HaSulam wrote, from the moment scientists began to sell science for money, that is, to accept anyone as a student, this action opened science’s door to everyone. Science went out to the masses, and every person began to use it with his own goals: some people used it to become richer, others—to acquire power and status, others—for military goals, and so on.
Science then ceased to help man in his life, and it transformed into an evil for him. However, did it ever really help man in his life? Take biology for example. This is where we invent poisons! Even in medicine, we see that the more we understand man’s body, the more distanced we become from health. This means that progress, including scientific progress, is not an index showing that we are moving toward a good life with its help.
In essence, this crisis is a part of the totality, together with all the other problems, which humanity is discovering in all forms of its activity. However, there exists one more problem in science: we are approaching its end. Over the last fifty years, we see the degree to which progress cannot further advance. It is just the opposite: by delving deeper into that which has been unknown until now, we discover the degree to which we really do not know this.
For example, as we reveal more of the universe, we suddenly discover that we have attained only two to three per cent of its visible structure, such as great collections of gases and various bodies. However, beside this, it contains an energy we do not understand or know. There exists disappearing matter that we are unable to attain. That is, with each discovery, we reveal more and more just how little we orient ourselves in this world.
Especially having come to quantum physics, we reveal how limited we are in our perception of reality. It is limited to such a degree that, ultimately, we are beginning to discover that we apprehend it only within our sense organs. It also appears that all of our vessels are built this way: we do not attain anything located outside of us and we do not see reality in its objective form. Everything that becomes revealed to us, becomes revealed only within our senses or in a subjective form. That is, we reveal only that which we are able to assimilate. Even that which we are unable to apprehend (as it seems to us); this too is revealed within our inner vessels and subjective feelings.
All of this also brings humanity to an even more profound feeling of powerlessness, emptiness, and despair that exist in the world today. In the past, we were able to create certain plans, including governmental programs. Every developing government created a program for fifty, twenty, ten and five years of its development, as well as for a year. It is impossible to move forward otherwise. For example, in fifty years we will need X amount of energy, and this means that, already now, it is necessary to build energy stations that we will begin to exploit in ten years. Or in thirty years we will need scientists in such and such fields; this means that already now we must establish places to train them, since the period of a scientists’ training is thirty years, and so on.
Today this no longer exists. A person that completes a university degree today is compelled to immediately perfect his professional level again and again, since the field of his activity constantly develops and this demands a person to constantly work on himself. In the past a graduate of a university was able to work for twenty, thirty or even fifty years with the knowledge he acquired in the university (with the addition of some novelties once every few years, which were also not necessary), and this was sufficient. Today there is no such thing. This is especially apparent in computer-related professions: beside the fact that people work, they must also constantly study, and the profession is impossible without doing this. Therefore the degree to which all of this, too, brings man to perceive his powerlessness, is clear.
Governments that previously created programs for fifty years into the future (their development is impossible without this) are unable to do anything today. Today we are able to plan something for a few years into the future with great difficulty, and even this is changing. This way we are coming to the state of total absence of government in our world and in our life, although it has always been considered that we will attain complete control over life, over the world and over all our activity.
Today the question—For what sake do we live?, or What is the essence of our life?—is not the question of an individual person, but rather one of all humanity. By adopting this question from all humanity, a person feels that he is one of many. On one hand, if everyone suffers, then this is already halfway a relief: “If everyone suffers and so do I, then what can you do? Somehow we will draw it out.” On the other hand, it is precisely the universal despair and powerlessness that have enveloped the whole world that must force us to turn and face this eternal question.
Obviously, we will be able to discover the answer. How and from where will we be able to receive it? Does it exist? Possibly, man lives and dies and there is nothing that must be the answer to his life? Perhaps we simply live because we live…
The answer must originate precisely from these two conditions: On one hand, we are disappointed due to the answer’s absence and we must find it. On the other hand, based on our activity in this world, thanks to it and with its help, we have arrived at the state of a certain understanding of nature, and we see that from all of nature, only man really develops. If this is the case, then based on the investigation of nature, we find that he who develops, develops according to a cause. This cause is determined by a goal or a final state that is originally located within him. Therefore he develops.
Today, quantum physics (as well) is revealing to us, and we are discovering, from our genes and from conducting investigations of nature, that our development, in essence, is always goal-oriented. It is originally known in nature what state every part of creation must be brought to, and therefore, by way of its step-by-step development, the desired state is achieved.
Let’s take an apple for example. We can see how sour, hard and unattractive it is during its growth, and how wonderful and suitable for use it is after it has ripened. The same thing occurs with every creation (creature) and every developing cell. Why? Because previously, even before the beginning of its development, inside of the growing cells and objects—a program has been laid. This program contains the completed picture or the final state—the Thought (Plan) it must achieve. This is what we see and investigate in nature.
Therefore, if we make the correct discoveries, we will find the answer in nature. After all, by developing we go through extremely difficult states, like the bitter stages of the apple’s development. It may happen that, ultimately, having ripened and achieved what is possible, we will end up in the opposite state.
The question is only whether or not our development happens forcefully, meaning that nature compels us to do this. We see in humanity’s history points where we suddenly begin to show interest in scientific investigations, education and culture. Some of us are pulled toward power, others—to violence, and others—to riches. This is how we have developed over the course of two thousand years.
Or, maybe we ourselves are able to somehow participate in this process?
In this case the choice is either that you sit with your hands folded in your lap and wait for everything to reveal itself on its own accord, or it may occur to you that if we will not participate in this process and understand it, then great suffering will befall us, and we will go through horrible states. Will these states bring us to the desired completion of development? Will we see, in the end, that we have achieved prosperity?
This development from its final state will nevertheless demand man’s participation, in order for him to develop in his mind and feelings and to grow up, becoming free and aware of reality. After all, it is not by coincidence that nature has endowed us with such great Kelim (vessels of reception). Obviously we are also supposed to participate in our own development in its unavoidable and apparent form. We are going to discuss all of this later on.
Thanks to scientific investigations we see that every cell, even the smallest one, develops in a step-by-step manner along a chain: cause—consequence. That is, it is impossible to simply go from a certain “State 1” to the following existing “State 2.” A particle that develops (whether it is a cell, a person or another object) must reveal that it has already realized itself in State 1, that it feels comfortable in it, and that it must arrive at State 2.
This desire (the desire to reach State 2) is, in essence, precisely what pushes it to a higher level where it begins to develop. The same thing takes place during the passage from State 2 to State 3. This way, development takes place in a step-by-step manner. Cause and consequence are expressed through the fact that the current state is always revealed as bad, and the following state—as better, relative to the previous.
Humanity’s development on Earth took place in such a fashion. People were constantly unhappy with something in the process of development; something could always be improved. So they began to rebuild society and to change it. They changed the relationships between people and nations through the introduction of various novelties that were the fruit of the development of technology, science and culture.
In other words, man performs consequential actions corresponding to the necessities that emerge in him, or when it becomes revealed to him that he should take the next step. For example, a person becomes tired of the furniture in his house and he wants to replace it. In other words, he evaluates his current state as bad, and there exists another state that is better. This is the form in which development takes place. It always takes place gradually and toward better states.
When we analyze everything that occurs to us, such as the growth of living cells, this makes us ponder about the general laws of nature. To some degree we are still able to research them on the still, vegetative and animal levels. However, with regard to the speaking level—meaning man and everything that relates to him (besides his body), such as his psychology, the way he thinks and his goals (that is, things that are high according to their inner content)—then we do not understand or know them, and we do not have any possibility of revealing them.
This is where a question arises: are we really unable to see this because we ourselves are located on this level?
When I investigate the nature of the still, vegetative or animal levels from the level of the speaking, then I view it from above, based on my mind, perceptions, feelings, understanding, scientific knowledge, and from the fact that my development occurred on the level of the speaking.
Due to this I am able to study and understand the lower forms of existence (relative to myself), and to control them. To understand means to control. I am able to conduct an investigation of them, to somehow influence them, and evaluate their reaction. In other words, I study the lower forms of existence. After all, in essence everything I investigate is inside a “black box.” Meaning, I do not know what something is until I have studied it. I exert a certain influence and receive a certain reaction. With the help of many influences, I evoke a greater number of reactions and, correspondingly, I deduce a formula of the object I research.
Drawing No. 2
If I analyze the still, vegetative and animal levels in this form, then I am able to understand them. In other words, I am able to finally figure out their cause and the goal of their existence by analyzing them so thoroughly that everything becomes clear to me. I am only unable to research myself. I am not referring to my still, vegetative and animal levels, but rather to the speaking level I contain.
The question is: “Is this even accessible to me?” If it isn’t, this means that no plan exists in nature. After all, everything develops from the still, to the vegetative, to the animal and to the speaking levels, and obviously the process of development may continue further as well and lead to some result. However, we completely fail to see the cause of this development since we do not know its final goal. We do not understand for what sake all of this exists.
It is obvious then, that in order to investigate the speaking level, we need to ascend one level higher. It is called “spiritual.” Actually, how we name it is not important. Let it be the higher level relative to us. If this level exists, it then appears that I am able to investigate myself from it. After all, it appears to exist. Why?
Drawing No. 3
With the help of modern science it has been established that not only we (humanity) are a part of a single organism. In addition, all laws of nature are in essence tied together into one law that envelops the whole universe, and we are located inside of it.
We are everything that exists. Our universe and the earth with the still, vegetative, animated and speaking levels that are located on it. One law governs all of this, but it influences us with the help of its various partial laws. We study these laws in physics, biology, medicine and psychology, that is, in our various sciences, which we ourselves have somehow designated since these provide for us more comfortable methods of research. However, in essence, all these various sciences have one nature.
By studying nature with the help of these sciences, we consequently discover that this is not physics, nor biology, nor chemistry, nor medicine in particular, but that they are all connected together. There is no difference in any of their laws. It is we who have investigated them in such a way and, having completed the study, we have understood that they are all interconnected and they subordinate to a single law that influences us.
We see and feel one influence on ourselves from different directions. Since we consist of the still, vegetative, animal and speaking levels, it therefore seems to us that there exist separate influences. However, it is only we who feel this way, because we ourselves include various levels. But in itself, the law is one.
If this is the case, then another question emerges. How will we discover what this one law is, which acts within the entire universe and advances it, and advances us in particular, equivalently to a ripening fruit, through the levels—still, vegetative, animated ,speaking? How does it bring us to the state when we all begin to ask the question about the meaning of life? In essence, this is the level on which all of humanity is now located.
As we have already discussed, man passes from one state to the next only under the condition that he feels bad in the previous state. Therefore, it is possible that, right now, when we are discovering that we are unhappy with our current state and we do not have any room to develop further, then this question about the meaning of life can bring us to an even higher level of development. However, we must not avoid this question, but should do just the opposite—clarify it and demand an answer.
Drawing No. 5
Therefore our current state, within which this question stands before us, is extremely special. We can look at it as the state that will bring us to favorable development by elevating us above the still, vegetative and animal levels to a higher level.
Drawing No. 6
However, if we will become lazy and will not want to open our eyes and find the answer to this question, then the opposite will occur. Some of us will descend to the animal or vegetative or still levels. Others will discover that they suppress themselves with various means, or they will even end their life with suicide.
Thus, we will suffer this way until this universal law finally compels us to resolve the question: “What is the meaning of our life?”
inapoi la SURSE Michael Laitman – link